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Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov was born in Moscow in 1810 and died in 1881 in his country estate, where he was exiled after his discharging from public service.
He entered the University at the age of 16. It was the faculty of Medicine in the Moscow State University (MSU). After finishing MSU he went abroad to study there and to have a bit of practice. He worked as a lecturer in the University of Tartumaa (West Russia, now Estonia). Then  N. I. Pirogov was invited to lead the department of surgeon in the Surgery Academy (St. Petersburg, Russia). He also established the clinic of Hospital Surgery.

He was able to learn the military doctors; Pirogov improved the methodic of operating in field conditions. He formulated the rules that are useful today: they are still relevant and all military doctors all over the world study them. He found out some surgeon methods that gave him possibility to avoid the extremity amputations. One of these methods is still called „the Pirogov's operation“.

N.I.PirogovIn 1847 N. I. Pirogov decided to leave St. Petersburg. He went to the Caucasus (a war had its place there at that time). He wanted to check up his theories and methodic in conditions of the war. During this travel he was the first doctor who used the starch bondage (it turned out to be much more comfortable and solid than splints that were in use before). In 1855 Pirogov went to deposited Sevastopol (it was deposited by English and French military forces), where he was the main doctor. Sevastopol was the place, where Pirogov (first in the world history) used cast. During his working in Sevastopol he used the help of nurses, who came from St. Petersburg — N. I. Pirogov popularized their help in Russia. Women in Russia didn? t take part in military operations before Sevastopol? s defense.
Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov always understood the role of anatomy in the medical education. In his researches he used frozen cadavers, sectioned in 3 planes. Essentially it was a starting point of topographical anatomy. He published the book called „Topographical Anatomy, Illustrated With Incision, Made In Three Planes Through The Frozen Cadaver“.
Some years after, Sevastopol was defeated, Pirogov returned to St. Petersburg to report on it to Russian Imperator Alexander II. Of course, this news didn? t please the Imperator and Pirogov was sent to Odessa (South Russia, now Ukraine) as the Odessa education area curator. After Alexander? s murder N. I. Pirogov was discharged from public service without pension.
Pirogov went to his estate not far from Vinnitsa (Russia, now Ukraine), founded the free hospital and died in 1881.
Now his body is being kept in mausoleum near his estate. He also invented the substation that is being used in his embalming.
Tags: история, медицина
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